本科毕业论文例文及具体格式要求

 外国语学院本科毕业论文

 The Language Features of English Advertisements

 英语广告语言特点分析

 院 系

  外国语学院

 专 业

  英 语 

 班 级 2008级本科(1)班

 学 号

   X X X  

 学 生 姓 名

   X X X  

 指 导 教 师

  X X X

 职 称   X X X  

 2012年4月

 Acknowledgements

  I have eternal gratitude to…, my tutor, for his inestimable help and valuable instruction, and to Professor …, for his insightful lectures, which inspire me to compose this dissertation.

  I am greatly indebted to Professor … for his allowing me to have access to his books pertinent to this dissertation.

  I also thank those who help me in course of the writing and whose names I can’t list here one by one.

 Abstract

 The mechanism of metaphor is actually the nucleus of the study of metaphor. For more than two thousand years, metaphor was viewed as a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language. In accordance with this perspective, metaphor was a comparison between two things that do not belong to the same category or was regarded as one word used to substitute another because there were preexisting similarities between them. As a result of this perspective, two theories took shape: one was the Comparison Theory, the other was the Theory of Substitution. But modern scholars discard the perspective, holding that metaphor is not only a device of rhetoric, to be more important, it is a leading way for human beings to know this world, a way of thinking. (中文摘要的对应译文)

 Key words: metaphor; collocation; terms

 (注意:关键词3-5个,字体不要加粗,词与词之间用分号分开,除专有名词外,其他单词首字母不大写)

 摘 要

 隐喻研究归根到底是隐喻机制的研究,它是隐喻研究的核心。两千多年来,隐喻一直被仅仅看作一种修辞手段,一种语言的陪衬,被看作是两种不同事物事先存在的相似性的比较或一个词对另一词的替代,进而形成对隐喻阐述的比较论和替代论。现代学者通过大量研究表明,隐喻不仅仅是一种修辞手段,更重要的是,它是人类的主要认知方式。隐喻这一认知方式,给人们一种新的视角,创造一种相似。因此,现代学者着重于阐述相似是如何被创造出来的。在众多的隐喻理论中,影响较大的有布莱克和莱科夫的隐喻理论。

 (大约200字左右)

 关键词:隐喻;搭配;术语

 (中文摘要的内容和关键词应与英文摘要相对应,关键词3-5个,词与词之间用分号分开)

 Contents

 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………I Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………….II

 摘 要……………………………………………………….……….………..III

 I. Introduction……………………………………………………………...………..1

 II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor……………………………...………...2

 2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor—A Device of Rhetoric……………..……….2

 2.2 The Platonic School—Language is Metaphorical……………….……………. 5

 2.3 The Study of Metaphor from the 20th Century to the Present……………….…..6

 III. On Similarity……………………………………………………………………7

 3.1 Similarity: A Fundamental Criterion for the Classification of Metaphor………..7

 3.2 Similarity and Culture………………………………………………………….9

 3.3 Similarity and Category………………………….……………………………10

 3.4 The Relationship Between Similarity and Knowledge……………………….13

 IV. On the Mechanism of Metaphor…………………………….………………...15

 4.1 Black’s Interaction Theory………………………………………15

 4.1.1 Introduction to the Interaction Theory…………………………………...15

 4.1.2 Some Defects of the Interaction Theory…………………………………16

 4.2 Lakoffian Conceptual Metaphor Theory……………………………………...19

 4.2.1 The Philosophical Basis of Lakoffian Theory…………………………...19

 4.2.2 Lakoffian Theory on the Mechanism of Metaphor………………………21

 4.2.3 The Deficiencies of Lakoffian Theory in Expounding the CreatioSimilarity…………...26

 4.3 Conceptual Integration Theory……………………………………………….29

 4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory……………...…29

  Four Mental Spaces……………….………………...……………..29

  Three Processes of BT………………..……………..……………..33

  Optimality Principles of BT………….…………………...……….34

 4.3.2 The Advantages of BT in Solving the Paradox of the Two Former Theories…………………………………………………………………...34

  The Generic Mental Space…………………………….…...……...34

  The Blending Space and Emergent Structure……..…………..…...35

  The Other Advantages of BT………………..…………..…………40

 V. Conclusion………………………………………………….……………………42

 Bibliography………………………………………………..………………………45

 I. Introduction

  The study of metaphor has long been with us and the focus of the study is the mechanism of metaphor. It is the most significant and indispensable part of the study. For more than two thousand years, the study is carried on mainly from the perspective of rhetoric, viewing metaphor as a device of rhetoric, an embellishment of language. The representative of the theories in this long period is Aristotle’s Comparison Theory and Quintilian’s Theory of Substitution. Because metaphor is not only a rhetorical phenomenon, but also one of cognition, the interpretation force of these theories is very limited. In 1936, I.A. Richards put forward Interaction Theory. Later Max Black made an elaboration of the work of his. Interaction Theory claims that metaphor is a cognitively irreducible phenomenon that works not at the level of word combination, but much deeper, arising out of the interaction between the conceptual structures underlying the words. But the ones who really turn the study of metaphor to a new page are George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The mark of this change is the publication of the book named Metaphors We Live By. The theory of Lakoff and Johnson’s is Conceptual Metaphor Theory. As these scholars regard metaphor as the creation of similarity, their theories concentrate on how the similarity is created and how the new meaning is produced though their interpretations are not perfect. Recently, another theory appeared—Conceptual Integration Theory or Blending Theory. Comparatively speaking, it is more convincing on the mechanism of metaphor than the other two.(以下省略)

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor

 2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor--A Device of Rhetoric

  Andrew Ortony, one of the most influential writers on metaphor, has pointed out, and there are few who would disagree with him, that it is still the case that “Any serious study of metaphor is almost obliged to start with the works of Aristotle”

 In Poetics, Aristotle expounds the essence, function and the way of explanation of metaphor as three nuclei. He defines metaphor as “the application of an alien name by transference either from genus to species, or from species to genus, or from species to species, or by analogy, that is, proportion” (1997: 21)(出版年:引文页码).(作者姓名在文中已经出现) Then he gives four kinds of metaphor:

 Since ‘lying at anchor’ is a species of the genus ‘lying’, one can say ‘there lies my ship’ (genus-to-species metaphor), since ‘ten thousand’ is a species of a ‘large number’, one can say verily ten thousand noble deeds hath Odysseus wrought (species-to-genus metaphor). Since ‘to draw away’ and ‘to cleave’ are each a species of the genus ‘taking away’, one can say with blade of bronze drew away the life (species-to-species metaphor). And since old age is to life as evening to the day, one can say that old age is the evening of life. (本例为整段引用,即block quotation, 前后空五号字一行 )

 All metaphors, Aristotle believes, fall into at least one of these four categories, although analogy metaphors are the most pleasing. Aristotle also holds that metaphor can make the prosaic style charming, and stresses that it can only be confined to poetry. This perspective leads to the later theorists making distinction between poetic language and everyday language. Especially in Chapter 21 and 22 of Poetics, Aristotle states that every word “is either current, or strange, or metaphor, or ornamental, or newly coined, or lengthened, or contracted, or altered” It is obvious that Aristotle classifies metaphors as lying outside normal language use. They are deviant or aberrant forms of discourse. He also holds that metaphor has no cognitive value and is merely an embellishment of language. Also in this chapter of Poetics, he elaborates how metaphors are unusual and discusses the relationship between metaphor and genius, viewing metaphor as a talent of epic poets and tragedians:

 The greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. This alone can not be imported by another; it is the mark of genius—for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances.

  As Hawks writes about Aristotle’s account of metaphor:

 It is abundantly clear that, as an entity in itself, metaphor is regarded as a decorative addition to language, to be used in specific ways, and at specific times and places (ibid. 8-9).

 

  In Rhetoric,(书名斜体) Aristotle says that the best metaphors are those that achieve the effect of bringing things vividly before the eyes of the audience. He argues that this effect is “produced by words which refer to things in action”. “The best image involves a metaphor” From the above statements, we know that Aristotle views metaphor as a rhetorical device and an embellishment of language. Finally he establishes his theory on metaphor—Comparison Theory. It is the earliest theory in the history of the study of metaphor. Its main gist is:

 1 Metaphors are matters of language and not matters of thought or action. There is no such thing as metaphorical thought or action.

 2 A metaphor of the form “A is B” is a linguistic expression whose meaning is the same as a corresponding linguistic expression of the form “A is like B, in respect X, Y, Z…” “Respects X, Y, Z…” characterize what we have called “isolated similarities”.

 3 A metaphor can therefore only describe preexisting similarities. It can’t create similarities

 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 III. On Similarity

  …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 IV. On the Mechanism of Metaphor

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 4.1 Black’s Interaction Theory

 4.1.1 Introduction to Interaction Theory

 Interaction Theory was originated from I. A. Richards’ theory. In his definition he says: “In the simplest formulation, when we use a metaphor we have two thoughts of different things active together and supported by a single word, or phrase, whose meaning is a resultant of their interaction”. The most important in this definition is “two active thoughts interact with each other.” He first provided the basic terminology and conceptual framework for discussing metaphor. He argued that metaphor consists of two terms, the tenor, or topic, and the vehicle, and the

 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 4.3 The Conceptual Integration Theory

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory

  Conceptual Integration Theory was proposed by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner……………………………………………………………………

 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  Four Mental Spaces

 In BT, the basis unit of cognitive organization is not the domain but the mental spaces, which are a partial and temporary representational structure that speakers construct when thinking or talking about a perceived, imagined, past, present………………………………………………

 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 V. Conclusion

 

  The study of metaphor is, in essence, the study of how metaphor works. It is the nucleus of metaphor study. Modern scholars discard the perspective that metaphor is a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language, and claim that metaphor is of cognition and is omnipresent; it is a way of human thinking. Moreover, they hold that metaphor creates similarity instead of comparing two things which are based on the preexisting similarity. Hence, the mechanism of metaphor is to interpret how similarity is created. Black’s theory and Lakoffian theory, due to some defects and deficiencies, are not able to give a clear description of the creation of similarity. They endeavor to expound the appearance of a new structure after a novel metaphor, but they fail to do that and result in “isomorphism”.

 The mechanism of metaphor is sophisticated. It is a result of various factors. Interacting, projecting and blending constitute the process. It is obvious that BT, on the basis of the two above-mentioned theories, focuses on solving the problem of the “isomorphism”-structure. To avoid committing the same mistake that all the knowledge, the features mapped from the source domain and the structure (topology) of the target domain are interwoven…….

 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 Bibliography

  “参考文献”格式范例

 [1] Adams, Richard P. Faulkner: Myth and Motion. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968.

 [2] Aiken, Conrad. William Faulkner: The Novel as Form. In Frederick J. Hoffman and Olga W. Vickery. eds. William Faulkner: Three Decades of Criticism. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1960.

 [3] Barker, Deborah E., and Ivo Kamps. Much Ado about Nothing: Language and Desire in The Sound and the Fury. Mississippi Quarterly: The Journal of Southern Culture. 46.3 (Summer 1993): 373-93.

 [4] Bleikasten, Andre. Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973.

 [5] Carter, Ronald, ed. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982.

 [6]?——. Literary Text and Language Study. London: Edward Arnold, 1982.

 [7] Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: The Modern Library, 1936.

 [8] ?——. The Sound and the Fury. Middlesex: Penguin, 1964.

 [9] He, Gang. Grammaticalization: Construction and slot. Guangzhou: CPrA. 2003 [2008-10-29]. /grammaticalization.htm.

 [10] Leech, G. N. 1969. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Longman. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

 [11] Leech, G. N. and Michael H. Short, 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

 [12] Peters, M. & Stephen, T. B. Interaction Routines as Cultural Influences upon Language Acquisition. In Schieffelin, B.B. & Ochs, E. eds. Language Socialization Across Cultures. Cambridge: CUP, 1986: 80-96.

 [13] Popping, Roel. Computer-Assisted Text Analysis. London: Sage, 2000.

 [14] Shen, Dan. Stylistics and Translation. Beijing: Peking UP, 1995.

 [15] 管淑红,王雅丽.小说话语的人际意义.外语与外语教学,2006, 4:10-13.

 [16] 胡壮麟. 功能主义纵横谈. 外语教学与研究出版社,2000.

 [17] 李战子. 评价理论:在话语分析中的应用和问题.外语研究,2004.5:1-6.

 [18] 刘新民. 主题、人物、艺术手法.名作欣赏,1997, 6:101-105.

 [19] 裘小龙. 从《献给爱米丽的玫瑰》中的绿头巾想到的.读书,1980:49-52.

 [20] 申丹. 有关功能文体学的几点思考.外国语,1997, 5:1-7.

 [21] 申丹. 西方现代文体学百年发展.外语教学与研究,2000, 1:22-28.

 [22] 申丹. 功能文体学再思考.外语教学与研究,2002, 3:188-193.

 [23] 施少平. 一幕耐人寻味的现代悲剧.求是学刊,1987:59.

 [24] 王振华. 介入:言语互动中的一种评价视角.博士论文,2003.

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